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Law in the Making
A Comparative Survey
Law in the Making
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In November 1980, the Assembly approved detailed plans for two of these projects. The first of these - dealing with medical responsibility - has already been presented in an impres- sive volume (E. Deutsch and H. -L. Schreiber, editors, Medical Responsibility in Western Europe.
|Publisher||Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K|
The Law-Making Process as a Juridical and Political Activity.- I The Law-Making Process.- 1 Law, Rules, Legal System.- 2 The Making of the Law and its Different Meanings.- a. Law-Making and Law-Applying.- b. "Rechtssetzung" and "Rechtsfindung".- c. The Various Phases of the Law-Making Process.- d. Theoretical Law and Living Law.- e. Provision and Norm
Normative Acts and Patterns of Behaviour.- 3 Rules on Law-Making.- a. The Sources of Law as a Field of Law-Making.- b. "Ex facto ius oritur".- c. The Double Hierarchy of Rules.- d. The Effectiveness Rule.- 4 The Sources of the Law.- a. The Juridical Notion of Source of Law.- b. Rules Operating "erga omnes" and Rules Operating "inter partes".- c. The Classification of Sources of Law.- d. The Main Factors Legitimizing Normative Power.- 5 Normative Inflation.- II The Concept of Legal System.- 1 The Role of the Legal System in Modern Societies.- 2 The Plurality of Legal Systems.- 3 Relations between Legal Systems.- a. Relations between State Legal Systems.- b. State Law and International Law.- c. State Law and Legal Systems Linked to it.- d. Relations between "Alternative" Legal Systems.- 4 The Most Important Models of State Legal Systems.- a. The Subjects of Legal Comparison.- b. Criteria for the Classification of Systems.- c. Prospects of Evolution in Contemporary Legal Systems.- III The Legislative Process and its Substitutes.- 1 Legislation by Political Assemblies.- a. The Structure of the Parliamentary Legislative Process.- b. The Initiative Phase.- c. The Resolution Phase.- d. Other Activities Necessary for the Entry into Force of the Act.- e. Characteristics of this Type of Normative Activity.- 2 Legislation by Governmental and Administrative Bodies.- a. The Structure of the Administrative Process.- b. Types of Governmental Normative Acts.- c. Characteristics of this Type of Normative Activity.- 3 Legislation by Judicial Bodies.- 4 Negotiated Legislation.- 5 Legislation by "Renvoi".- IV Relations between Forms of Government and Sources of Law Systems.- 1 Forms of Government and Forms of State.- 2 The Most Important Forms of State.- a. Unitary States and Pluralistic States.- b. Democratic States and Authoritarian States.- c. "Patrimonial State", "Polizeistaat", "Rechtsstaat".- d. "Liberal State", "Welfare State", "Socialist State".- 3 The Most Important Forms of Government.- a. Absolute, Limited, Constitutional and Parliamentary Monarchies.- b. Presidential, Semi-Presidential and Parliamentary Republics and Government by "Directoire".- c. "Democratic Centralism".- d. Multi-Party, Bi-Party and Single Party Systems
Consociational Government, Alternation and Hegemony.- 4 Relations between Forms of Government and of State and Sources of Law Systems.- 5 Representative Force of Constitutional Organs and Hierarchy of Sources of Law.- a Limits to the Use of Forms of Direct Democracy.- b. Parliamentary Legislative Activity and Governmental Normative Activity.- 6 Judicial Interpretation and Judicial Law-Making
Law-Making by State Authorities and Autonomous Law-Making.- a. Judicial Law-Making.- b. The Normative Autonomy of Constitutional Organs and Public Authorities, and Private Normative Autonomy.- 7 Limits to the Correspondence between the System of the Sources of Law and the Form of State and of Government.- Constitutional Systems and Sources of Law.- 1 The Sources of Law and the Constitutional Context.- 2 The Hierarchy of the Sources of Law.- 3 The Conception of the Sources of Law and the International Legal Order.- 4 Unitary or Composite Structure of the State.- 5 Different Categories of Laws.- 6 Referendums and Other Forms of Participation of Citizens.- 7 Parliamentary Regimes and Presidential Regimes.- 8 Parliamentary Legislation and Governmental Action.- 9 Other Aspects of the Form of Government.- 10 The Delegation of Normative Powers.- 11 The Role of the Judiciary.- 12 Conclusions.- Constitutional Law between Statutory Law and Higher Law.- I Preliminary Notes: Object and Method of the Investigation.- II The General Character of the Constitutions.- 1 Written or Unwritten Constitutions?.- 2 Contents and Formal Structure.- a. Fundamental Rights and Organizational Rules - a General Principle of Division?.- b. The Extent of Constitutions.- 3 The Normative and Programmatic Character of Constitutions.- a. Fundamental Structural Distinction - Normative and Programmatic Types of Constitutions.- b. Contents and Normative Function of Preambles.- aa. Preamble - the Preface of a Constitution.- bb. Selected Characteristic Elements.- cc. Preambles as Normative Binding Rules?.- III Constitutional Law and Statutory Law.- 1 Constitutional Law and Other Sorts of Law - a Categorical Ranking.- a. A Formal Distinction of Categories on the Basis of the Formal Requirements for Enactment.- b. Constitutional Amendment and Unalterable Constitutional Rules ("Perpetuity Clauses").- 2 Supremacy of the Constitution and its Implications for the Legislature.- a. Legislative Authority.- aa. General and Qualified Authority with Respect to Basic Rights ("Gesetzesvorbehalt").- bb. Special Provisions for Limitation and Enforcement of Basic Rights.- b. Binding the Legislature.- aa. Constitution as an Objective Binding Law.- bb. The Immediate Binding Effect of Basic Rights.- cc. The Guarantee of Essential Content ("Wesensgehaltsgarantie").- c. Other Constitutional Influences on the Legislature.- aa. Provisions Setting State Goals ("Staatsziel-bestimmungen") and Law-Making Mandates ("Gesetzgebungsauftrage").- bb. Impact of the Constitution on the Legislature Through the Objective-Legal Character of Fundamental Rights Articles.- IV Relationship between Constitutional Law and Higher Law.- 1 Recognition of Human Rights and Their Incorporation.- a. Recognition of Innate Human Rights.- b. Rank of the European Human Rights Convention (EHRC).- 2 Constitutional Law and International Law.- 3 Recognition of General Legal Principles.- Statute and Statutory Instrument in the Evolution of European Constitutional Systems.- I Preliminary Notes.- II Statute and Statutory Instrument in the Constitutions and in Practice in Some European Legal Systems.- 1 Great Britain.- 2 Switzerland.- 3 Belgium.- 4 Austria.- 5 West Germany.- 6 Italy.- 7 France.- 8 Spain.- III Common Tendencies.- 1 Underestimation of the Problem by Constituent Assemblies.- 2 The Expansion of the Functional Scope of Statutory Instruments.- 3 The Flexible Interpretation of Constitutional Rules Defining Areas Reserved for Regulation by Statute Law.- 4 Statutory Instruments Enacted Outside the Central Government Area.- 5 Relations between Statute and Statutory Instrument as a Problem Regarding the Division of Competences More than the Hierarchy of Sources of Law.- IV Towards the Definition of Three European Models..- 1 The English Model.- 2 The French Model.- 3 The Intermediate Continental Model.- Constitutional Jurisdiction as Law-Making.- I Subject and Scope.- 1 Terminology.- 2 Scope and Method.- II Techniques of Constitutional Jurisdiction.- 1 "Erga Omnes" Binding Effects and the Concept of Constitutional Jurisdiction.- 2 The American System.- a. The Principle of "Stare Decisis".- b. The Judicial Review of Legislation.- c. Unconstitutionality due to Vagueness or Overbreadth.- 3 The European System.- a. The Idea of the Judiciary in Civil Law Countries.- b. The Austrian Model.- c. The Post-War European Systems.- aa. "Interpretative" Decisions.- bb. "Mere Unconstitutionality" Decisions.- cc. "Manipulative" Decisions.- III Methods of Judicial Law-Making and its Effects.- 1 Legal Law-Making Through Declaration of Voidness.- a. Object of the Declaration.- b. Form of the Declaration.- c. Spatial and Temporal Scope of the Declaration.- 2 Constitutional Law-Making.- Collective Bargaining as Agreement and as Law: Neo-Contractualist and Neo-Corporative Tendencies of our Age.- I Introduction.- II The Legal Nature of Collective Agreements.- 1 Functions of the Agreements. Normative and Procedural Clauses.- 2 Agreements Binding in Honour and Legally Binding.- 3 Freedom of Association and Bargaining Agents.- 4 Effects of new Patterns in Bargaining: Some Examples.- III State Guidance in Collective Bargaining.- 1 Legal Support for Collective Agreements.- 2 Remittals From the Law to Collective Bargaining..- IV Neo-Corporative Tendencies.- 1 Negotiated Legislation.- 2 Tripartite Bargaining and Institutions.- 3 Concluding Remarks.- Central Law and Peripheral Law.- I Federalism, Regionalism and Peripheral Law as Matters for Constitutional Regulation: an Overview.- 1 Preliminary Remarks.- 2 Separation and Coordination of Jurisdictions of "Oberstaat" and "Gliedstaaten".- 3 Discrepancies between Written and Living Constitutional Frameworks of Political Decentralization.- 4 The Paradox of Decentralization.- II Decentralization, Democracy and Form of State. The Influence of American Federalism and the European Tradition.- 1 Decentralization in Federal or Regional Form as a Problem of Form of State and of Democracy...- 2 The Impact of American Federalism on European Tradition.- a. U.S. Federalism as a Model.- b. The Expansion of the "French Model" of Organization of Local Power and the Growth of National States.- c. Ethnic Federalism and the Protection of Minorities.- d. Federalism as a Political or Juridical Principle.- e. Decentralization and the Safeguarding of Democracy.- III Federalism v. Regionalism or Separation v. Coordination? Patterns of Political Decentralization and Law-Making Rules.- 1 Classification of Patterns of Decentralization. The Federal State and the Regional State as Qualitatively Different Models.- 2 Patterns of Liberal Federalism and of the Contemporary Decentralized State in Regional or Federal Form: From Guarantism to Cooperativism.- 3 Constitutional Models of Decentralization and Their Framework of Law-Making Rules.- a. The Classical-Liberal Model.- b. The Intermediate Model.- c. The Guarantist Aspects of the Intermediate Model.- 4 The "Cooperative" Model of Decentralization..- a. The Presuppositions for the Cooperative Model.- b. The Lack of an Organic Constitutional Regulation of Cooperative Practice.- c. Common Features of Forms of Cooperative Decentralization.- IV What Peripheral Law is and how it Works.- 1 Separation of Jurisdictions of "Oberstaat" and "Gliedstaaten": Principle of Competence, Principle of Hierarchy and Concurrent Legislative Powers.- a. The Principle of Rigid Separation of Competences.- b. Concurrent Legislative Powers of "Oberstaat" and "Gliedstaaten".- c. The Principle of Hierarchy.- 2 The Conzern-Basis of the Separation of Jurisdictions: Matters, Functions, Policies.- a. The Separation of Jurisdictions as the Basis for a Classification of Forms of Decentralization.- b. The Problem of the Juridical Definition of Matters or Concerns.- 3 Legislative Process and Cooperative Decentralization: Towards a Model of Decentralization Based on Procedural Guarantees?.- a. Cooperative Practice as a Means or as an End?.- b. Seeking a new Equilibrium in Relations between "Oberstaat" and "Gliedstaaten".- The Law-Making Process in the European Communities.- I Introduction.- 1 Reasons for Extending the Research to the European Communities.- 2 The Difference in Nature between the Communities and States.- 3 The Particular Characteristics of the Communities with Respect to International Organizations.- 4 The Existence of three Communities with Separate Rules and Common Structural Elements.- 5 Nature and Role of Community Institutions.- II The Formation of Community Regulations.- 1 Regulations: General Features.- a. Typical Features of Regulations.- b. Equivalence between Regulations and General Decisions of the ECSC.- c. Limits to the Communities' Law-Making Power..- d. Mitigation of the Enumerated Powers Principle..- e. Classifications of Regulations.- 2 The Initiative Stage.- a. The Commission's Power of Initiative in the EEC and in the EAEC.- b. The Influence of Other Bodies on the Exercise of the Above-Mentioned Power.- c. Preliminary Contacts between the Commission and the Council.- d. Preparation of Draft Regulations by the Commission.- 3 The Consultation Stage.- a. Consultation of the Parliament and of the Economic and Social Committee.- b. The Possibility of Modifying the Initial Proposal.- c. The Conciliation Procedure.- 4 The Decision Stage.- a. The Role of the COREPER.- b. The Majority Principle in the Council.- c. and its Abandonment in Community Practice.- d. The Final Stage of the Rule-Making Process..- 5 Characteristics of the ECSC System.- a. Power of Initiative with Respect to Decisions.- b. The Consultative and Final Stages.- 6 Commission Regulations and the System of the "Management Committees".- 7 Reasons for the Regulations.- 8 Other Aspects as Concerns Form.- 9 Publication and Entry into Force.- III Regulations and Other Sources of the Community Legal System.- 1 The Creation of Individuals' Rights and Obligations on the Basis of Sources Other than a Regulation..- 2 Classification of Community Treaties into three Groups.- a. Rules Expressly Addressed to Private Subjects.- b. Rules Addressed to the States or to Institutions
Interpretation of these Rules in the Light of the "Direct Effect" Doctrine.- c. Rejection of the Thesis according to which Laws Implementing Community Treaties are Necessary in Order to Grant Rights to, and Impose Obligations on, Individuals.- d. Relationship between Treaty Rules and Rules Embodied in Regulations.- 3 Directives: Differences between their Features and those of Regulations.- a. Developments in Community Practice as Concerns Directives.- b. The Application of the Direct Effect Doctrine to Directives.- 4 The Possibility that Agreements Stipulated by one of the Communities can Have Immediate Effect on Individuals.- 5 The Role of Principles of Unwritten Law.- Problems of the Legislative Process in the Socialist Countries of Europe.- I Preliminary Remarks.- II Law and Legislation in the Socialist Countries...- 1 Law in General.- 2 Historical Foundations of Socialist Legislation..- 3 The "Style" of Socialist Legislation.- III The Legislative Process in the Socialist Countries.- 1 Phases of the Legislative Process.- 2 Legislative Initiative.- 3 The Drafting Process.- 4 Parliamentary Procedure: The Enactment of the Statute.- Some Specific Elements Concerning the Legislative Process of the S.F.R. of Yugoslavia.- 1 The Postwar Development of the Constitutional System of Yugoslavia.- 2 The Assembly of the S.F.R. of Yugoslavia.- 3 Legislative Process.- 4 Relations between Federal and Republican (Provincial) Agencies in the Legislative Process.- 5 Executive Activity.- 6 Process of Delegalization.- 7 Concluding Note.- Software for the Legislator.- 1 Introductory Notes.- 2 Legislative Pollution.- 3 "Gesetzgebung".- 4 Computer Aids.- 5 Legislative Information Retrieval Systems.- 6 Automatic Analysis of Legislation.- 7 A Model for Rational Reconstruction of a Positive Legal System.- 8 The Legislator's Language.- 9 Calculation of Combinations and Consequences.- 10 Expert Systems.- 11 A Shell for Basic Deontic Logic.- 12 Conclusions.- Annex I: How the Research was Carried out.- Annex II: Guidelines for the National Reporters.- I Preliminary Notes.- II The Legislative Process.- III Statutes and the Forms of State and of Government.- IV Statutes in the System of the Sources of the Law.- V The Structure of the National Reports.