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Extreme Tissue Engineering
Concepts and Strategies for Tissue Fabrication

 

You are here: Medicine > Surgery > Plastic & Reconstructive ... 

Word Power Books

Extreme Tissue Engineering
Concepts and Strategies for Tissue Fabrication

by Robert A. Brown (Author)

 

Other digital

ISBN: 9781119941064

 

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Our Price: £108.00

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  • Description
  • Reviews
  • Book Details
  • Contents

<p>Highly Commended at the BMA Book Awards 2013 <p>Extreme Tissue Engineering is an engaging introduction to Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM), allowing the reader to understand, discern and place into context the mass of scientific, multi-disciplinary data currently flooding the field.



<p>Students and researchers in areas such as stem cell and developmental biology, tissue repair, implantology and surgical sciences, biomaterials sciences and nanobiomedicine, bioengineering, bio-processing and monitoring technologies - from undergraduate and masters to doctoral and post-doctoral research levels - will find Extreme Tissue Engineering a stimulating and inspiring text. <p>Written in a fluid, entertaining style, Extreme Tissue Engineering is introductory yet challenging, richly illustrated and truly interdisciplinary.


 

ISBN 1119941067
ISBN13 9781119941064
Publisher John Wiley & Sons Inc
Format Other digital
Publication date 25/01/2013
Pages 272
Weight (grammes) 666
Published in United States
Height (mm) 246
Width (mm) 189

<
p>
Preface: Extreme Tissue Engineering

a User
s Guide xi
<
p>
1 Which Tissue Engineering Tribe Are You From? 1
<
p>
1.1 Why do we need to engineer tissues at all? 1
<
p>
1.1.1 Will the real tissue engineering and regenerative medicine please stand up? 2
<
p>
1.1.2 Other people
s definitions 3
<
p>
1.1.3 Defining our tissue engineering: fixing where we are on the scale-hierarchy 4
<
p>
1.2 Bio-integration as a fundamental component of engineering tissues 7
<
p>
1.2.1 Bio-scientists and physical scientists/engineers: understanding diversity in TERM 8
<
p>
1.3 What are the

tribes

of tissue engineering? 10
<
p>
1.3.1 Special needs for special characteristics: why is networking essential for TERM? 13
<
p>
1.4 Surprises from tissue engineering (Veselius to Vacanti) 16
<
p>
1.5 So really is there any difference between tissue engineering and regenerative medicine? 20
<
p>
1.5.1 Questions never really asked: repair versus regeneration? 20
<
p>
1.5.2 Understanding the full spectrum: tissue replacement repair and regeneration 23
<
p>
1.6 Conclusions 27
<
p>
1.7 Summarizing definitions 28
<
p>
Annex 1 Other people
s definitions of tissue engineering 29
<
p>
Annex 2 Other people
s definitions of regenerative medicine 30
<
p>
Further reading 30
<
p>
2 Checking Out the Tissue Groupings and the Small Print 33
<
p>
2.1 Checking the small print: what did we agree to engineer? 33
<
p>
2.2 Identifying special tissue needs problems and opportunities 37
<
p>
2.3 When is

aiming high

just

over the top
? 39
<
p>
2.4 Opportunities risks and problems 41
<
p>
2.4.1 Experimental model tissues (as distinct from spare-parts and fully regenerated tissues) 41
<
p>
2.4.2 The pressing need for 3D model tissues 42
<
p>
2.4.3 Tissue models can be useful spin-offs on the way to implants 42
<
p>
2.5 Special needs for model tissues 44
<
p>
2.5.1 Cell selection: constancy versus correctness 44
<
p>
2.5.2 Support matrices

can synthetics fake it? 45
<
p>
2.5.3 Tissue dimensions: when size does matter! 46
<
p>
2.6 Opportunities and sub-divisions for engineering clinical implant tissues 46
<
p>
2.6.1 Making physiological implants: spare parts or complete replacement? 47
<
p>
2.6.2 Making pathological and aphysiological constructs: inventing new parts and new uses 47
<
p>
2.6.3 Learning to use the plethora of tissue requirements as an opportunity 48
<
p>
2.7 Overall summary 49
<
p>
Further reading 49
<
p>
3 What Cells

Hear

When We Say

3D

51
<
p>
3.1 Sensing your environment in three dimensions: seeing the cues 51
<
p>
3.2 What is this 3D cell culture thing? 54
<
p>
3.3 Is 3D for cells more than a stack of 2Ds? 55
<
p>
3.4 On in and between tissues: what is it like to be a cell? 58
<
p>
3.5 Different forms of cell-space: 2D 3D pseudo-3D and 4D cell culture 62
<
p>
3.5.1 What has

3D

ever done for me? 62
<
p>
3.5.2 Introducing extracellular matrix 63
<
p>
3.5.3 Diffusion and mass transport 65
<
p>
3.5.4 Oxygen mass transport and gradients in 3D engineered tissues: scaling Mount Doom 66
<
p>
3.6 Matrix-rich cell-rich and pseudo-3D cell cultures 69
<
p>
3.7 4D cultures

or cultures with a 4th dimension? 71
<
p>
3.8 Building our own personal understanding of cell position in its 3D space 73
<
p>
3.9 Conclusion 75
<
p>
Further reading 75
<
p>
4 Making Support-Scaffolds Containing Living Cells 77
<
p>
4.1 Two in one: maintaining a synergy means keeping a good duet together 77
<
p>
4.2 Choosing cells and support-scaffolds is like matching carriers with cargo 78
<
p>
4.3 How like the

real thing

must a scaffold be to fool its resident cells? 80
<
p>
4.4 Tissue prosthetics and cell prosthetics

what does it matter? 83
<
p>
4.5 Types of cell support material for tissue engineering

composition or architecture? 85
<
p>
4.5.1 Surface or bulk

what does it mean to the cells? 85
<
p>
4.5.2 Bulk material breakdown and the local

cell economy

85
<
p>
4.6 Three generic types of bulk composition for support materials 86
<
p>
4.6.1 Synthetic materials for cell supports 88
<
p>
4.6.2 Natural native polymer materials for cell supports 90
<
p>
4.6.3 Hybrids: composite cell support materials having synthetic and natural components 98
<
p>
4.7 Conclusions 100
<
p>
Further reading 101
<
p>
5 Making the Shapes for Cells in Support-Scaffolds 103
<
p>
5.1 3D shape and the size hierarchy of support materials 104
<
p>
5.2 What do we think

substrate shape

might control? 106
<
p>
5.3 How we fabricate tissue structures affects what we get out in the end: bottom up or top down? 107
<
p>
5.4 What shall we seed into our cell-support materials? 110
<
p>
5.4.1 Cell loading: guiding the willing bribing the reluctant or trapping the unwary? 111
<
p>
5.4.2 Getting cells onto/into pre-fabricated constructs (the willing and the reluctant) 114
<
p>
5.4.3 Trapping the unwary: Seeding cells into self-assembling gel-forming materials 115
<
p>
5.5 Acquiring our cells: recruiting the enthusiastic or press-ganging the resistant 118
<
p>
5.5.1 From cell expansion to selection and differentiation 121
<
p>
5.6 Cargo crew or stowaway? 124
<
p>
5.6.1 Crew-type cells: helping with the journey 124
<
p>
5.6.2 Cargo-type cells: building the bulk tissue 125
<
p>
5.6.3 Stowaway or ballast-type cells 128
<
p>
5.7 Chapter summary 128
<
p>
Further reading 129
<
p>
6 Asymmetry: 3D Complexity and Layer Engineering

Worth the Hassle? 131
<
p>
6.1 Degrees of tissue asymmetry 133
<
p>
6.2 Making simple anisotropic/asymmetrical structures 134
<
p>
6.3 Thinking asymmetrically 137
<
p>
6.4 How do we know which scale to engineer first? 140
<
p>
6.5 Making a virtue of hierarchical complexity: because we have to 144
<
p>
6.6 Cell-layering and matrix-layering 147
<
p>
6.7 No such thing as too many layers: theory and practice of tissue layer engineering 151
<
p>
6.7.1 Examples of layer engineering 153
<
p>
6.8 Other forms of tissue fabrication in layers and zones 158
<
p>
6.8.1 Section summary 158
<
p>
6.9 Familiar asymmetrical construction components: everyday

layer engineering

159
<
p>
6.10 Summary 160
<
p>
7 Other Ways to Grow Tissues? 163
<
p>
7.1 General philosophies for repair replacement and regeneration 163
<
p>
7.1.1 What does reconstructive surgery have to teach us? 165
<
p>
7.1.2 Clues from the natural growth of tissues 166
<
p>
7.2 What part of grow do we not understand? 167
<
p>
7.2.1 Childhood growth of soft connective tissues: a good focus? 169
<
p>
7.2.2 Mechanically induced

growth

of tissues in children 170
<
p>
7.2.3 Mechanically induced

growth

of adult tissue 171
<
p>
7.2.4 Growth has a mirror image



ungrowth

or shrinkage-remodelling 172
<
p>
7.3 If growth and ungrowth maintain a tensional homeostasis what are its controls? 173
<
p>
7.3.1 Tension-driven growth and tensional homeostasis

the cell
s perspective? 174
<
p>
7.3.2 Mechanically reactive collagen remodelling

the

constant tailor

theory 177
<
p>
7.4 Can we already generate tension-driven growth in in vivo tissue engineering? 178
<
p>
7.4.1 Mechanical loading of existing tissues 178
<
p>
7.5 Conclusions: what can we learn from engineered growth? 179
<
p>
Appendix to Chapter 7 179
<
p>
Further reading 182
<
p>
8 Bioreactors and All That Bio-Engineering Jazz 185
<
p>
8.1 What are

tissue bioreactors

and why do we need them? 186
<
p>
8.1.1 Rumblings of unease in the smaller communities 186
<
p>
8.1.2 Hunting for special cells or special cues 187
<
p>
8.1.3 Farming

culture or engineered fabrication 188
<
p>
8.2 Bioreactors: origins of tissue bioreactor logic and its problems 190
<
p>
8.2.1 What have tissue engineers ever done for bioreactor technology? 190
<
p>
8.2.2 The 3D caveat 191
<
p>
8.2.3 Fundamental difference between biochemical and tissue bioreactors: 3D solid material fabrication 193
<
p>
8.2.4 Why should a little thing like

matrix

change so much? 194
<
p>
8.2.5 The place of tissue bioreactors in tissue engineering logic: what happened to all the good analogies? 195
<
p>
8.3 Current strategies for tissue bioreactor process control: views of Christmas past and present 199
<
p>
8.3.1 Bioreactor enabling factors 200
<
p>
8.3.2 Cell and architecture control 203
<
p>
8.4 Extreme tissue engineering solutions to the tissue bioreactor paradox: a view of Christmas future? 209
<
p>
8.4.1 In vivo versus in vitro tissue bioreactors: the new

nature versus nurture

question? 209
<
p>
8.4.2 Do we need tissue bioreactors at all? 210
<
p>
8.5 Overall summary

how can bioreactors help us in the future? 212
<
p>
Further reading 214
<
p>
9 Towards 4D Fabrication: Time Monitoring Function and Process Dynamics 217
<
p>
9.1 Controlling the dynamics of what we make: what can we control? 218
<
p>
9.2 Can we make tissue bioreactor processes work

another way forward? 222
<
p>
9.2.1 Blending the process systems: balancing the Yin and the Yang 224
<
p>
9.2.2 Making the most of hybrid strategies: refining the timing and sequence 226
<
p>
9.2.3 A real example of making tissues directly 230
<
p>
9.3 The 4th dimension applied to bioreactor design 232
<
p>
9.3.1 Change change change! 232
<
p>
9.3.2 For bioreactor monitoring what are we really talking about? 233
<
p>
9.3.3 Monitoring and processes

chickens and eggs: which come first? 234
<
p>
9.4 What sort of monitoring: how do we do it? 238
<
p>
9.4.1 Selecting parameters to be monitored 238
<
p>
9.4.2 What is so special about our particular

glass slipper
? 241
<
p>
9.5 The take-home message 245
<
p>
Further reading 246
<
p>
10 Epilogue: Where Can Extreme Tissue Engineering Go Next? 247
<
p>
10.1 So where can extreme tissue engineering go next? 247
<
p>
Index 249