Creating the Market University
How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine


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Creating the Market University
How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine

by Elizabeth Popp Berman (Author)



ISBN: 9780691147086


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American universities serve as economic engines, performing the scientific research that can create new industries, drive economic growth, and keep the United States globally competitive. This title sheds light on how knowledge and politics intersect to structure the economy.

The policy decisions shaped by this change were diverse, influencing arenas from patents and taxes to pensions and science policy, and encouraged practices that would focus specifically on the economic value of academic science. By the early 1980s, universities were nurturing the rapid growth of areas such as biotech entrepreneurship, patenting, and university-industry research centers. Contributing to debates about the relationship between universities, government, and industry, "Creating the Market University" sheds light on how knowledge and politics intersect to structure the economy.


ISBN 691147086
ISBN13 9780691147086
Publisher Princeton University Press
Format Hardback
Publication date 19/12/2011
Pages 264
Weight (grammes) 514
Published in United States
Height (mm) 229
Width (mm) 152

Acknowledgments ix

Chapter 1: Academic Science as an Economic Engine 1
The Changing Nature of Academic Science 4
Studying the Changes in Academic Science 8
Explaining the Rise of Market Logic in Academic Science 12
Overview of the Book 17

Chapter 2: Market Logic in the Era of Pure Science 19
Federal Funding and the Support of Science Logic 21
Using Market Logic in the 1950s and 1960s 23
Limits to the Spread of Market Logic 29
The Pillars of the Postwar System Begin to Crumble 35
The Effects of the Dissolving Federal Consensus 37

Chapter 3: Innovation Drives the Economy-an Old Idea with New Implications 40
Market-Logic Practices of the 1970s and Their Limits 42
The Political Power of an Economic Idea 44
The Innovation Frame and the University 55

Chapter 4: Faculty Entrepreneurship in the Biosciences 58
Before Biotech 60
Early Entrepreneurship 63
1978: A Turning Point 69
Academic Entrepreneurship: Money Changes Everything 76
Why Did Bioscience Entrepreneurship Take Off? 87

Chapter 5: Patenting University Inventions 94
University Patenting during the Science-Logic Era 96
Barriers to the Expansion of University Patenting 104
Innovation, the Economy, and Government Patent Policy 106
University Patenting after 1980 111
Why Did University Patenting Take Off? 114

Chapter 6: Creating University-Industry Research Centers 119
UIRCs versus Biotech Entrepreneurship and University Patenting 119
The Trajectory of University-Industry Research Centers 122
The Emergence of Federal and State Support for UIRCs 131
The Expansion of State and Federal Support for UIRCs in the 1980s 139
Why Did University-Industry Research Centers Spread? 141

Chapter 7: The Spread of Market Logic 146
The Expansion of Biotech Entrepreneurship, Patenting, and UIRCs 147
Market Logic Elsewhere in Academic Science 149
University Administrators and the Rhetoric of Innovation 154
Science Logic and Market Logic: An Uneasy Coexistence 156

Chapter 8: Conclusion 158
How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine:Considering the Evidence 159
Reconsidering Alternative Arguments 162
Speaking to Larger Conversations 167

Notes 179
Bibliography 221
Index 261